A parenting styles psychology construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting can be more essential than the quantity of time spent with the child. There are various theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children, as well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to invest.
Each style takes a different approach to raising children, and can be identified by a number of different characteristics.
Here 4 Parenting Styles Psychology
Authoritarian parents are famous for saying, “Because I said so,” when a child questions the reasons behind a rule. They are not interested in negotiating and their focus is on obedience.
The authoritarian parent combines low levels of warmth with high levels of control and employs a strict discipline style characterized by minimal negotiation with the child, high expectations, limited flexibility, frequent use of punishment, and one-way communication from parent to child.
Authoritarian parenting has been associated with child outcomes such as hostility, delinquency, rebelliousness, and antisocial aggression.
The authoritative parent displays both high levels of warmth and high levels of control. Authoritative parenting has been associated with greater child competence, exceptional maturity, assertiveness, and self-control.
Children raised with authoritative discipline tend to be happy and successful. They’re also more likely to be good at making decisions and evaluating safety risks on their own.
Research has shown that authoritative parenting may be the most effective style, however, it also tends to be the most demanding in terms of parental energy and time.
Authoritative parents have rules and they use consequences, but they also take their children’s opinions into account. They validate their children’s feelings, while also making it clear that the adults are ultimately in charge.
Authoritative parents invest time and energy into preventing behavior problems before they start. They also use positive discipline strategies to reinforce good behavior, like praise and reward systems.
The permissive parent exhibits high levels of warmth and low levels of control. The parent acts more like a friend than a parent, employing a lax discipline style with few rules, little to no expectations, and minimal guidance or direction.
Permissive parents are lenient. They often only step in when there’s a serious problem. Parents with this style have a tendency to be very loving and nurturing, but also allow their children to solve problems without parental involvement. Permissive parents tend to be non-demanding, it becomes much more difficult to control children’s behaviors and outline boundaries in children’s environments.
Research has found links between the excessive parental indulgence often found in permissive parenting practices and children’s decreased social competence and academic achievement.
The uninvolved parent combines low levels of warmth and low levels of control, and does not utilize any particular discipline style. Uninvolved parents tend to have little knowledge of what their children are doing. Children may not receive much guidance, nurturing, and parental attention.
Uninvolved parents expect children to raise themselves. They don’t devote much time or energy into meeting children’s basic needs. Children with uninvolved parents are likely to struggle with self-esteem issues. They tend to perform poorly in school. They also exhibit frequent behavior problems and rank low in happiness.
Because the uninvolved parent is neither demanding, nor responsive, and because young children are highly dependent on parental structure and support, uninvolved parenting has been associated with behavioral problems and depression in children. Additionally, adolescents who are exposed to uninvolved parenting practices often perceive high levels of rejection and tend to exhibit more externalizing behaviors, aggressive behaviors, delinquent behaviors, hostility, and attention problems.